Also, the accuracy for Powkey2 vs Powley3 in 357 Sig is 96.8% vs 96.9% even though the MAX Difference is 61 ft/s vs 64 ft/s. B.C. Part 2: Industry Standard MeasurementsWhen it comes to approximating muzzle velocities for various barrel lengths we have to start with some real data. Muzzle energy is the main comparative element. When learning to shoot there is a lot of information to process. Change ). We were able to find three (unverified) variants of Powley's formulas through a bunch of online research. Conversely, a revolver's barrel is measured from its muzzle to the front of the revolver's cylinder. Knockout Formulas: Just How Important is Muzzle Velocity to Stopping Power. The muzzle energy of a gun is determined by the physics equation for kinetic energy which is displayed as follows. Speer’s 9mm +P Gold Dot with its 124 grain JHP has a Taylor number of only 8, as does Remington’s .357 Magnum 125 grain Golden Saber. The standard equations of motion govern everything that moves, from bullets to butterflies. Part 4: Search for a Better Formula Desiring to be as accurate and truthful as possible with our rankings, last year we began a quest to find a formula (or formulas) that took into account all of the relevant factors mentioned above. Muzzle Energy : Momentum In Pound Seconds Weight of bullet (in grains) x velocity (in foot seconds) x velocity x 0.000002218 = energy in foot pounds. In short, this is also governed by one of newtons laws of motion. We shot the nerf gun off horizontally, measuring the initial height of the dart, making sure that it was being ejected parallel to the floor and not at an angle. If the acceleration value is not provided, then you can still derive the muzzle velocity formula from the relationship between force, mass, and pressure. Other derived parameters such as Muzzle Energy, Recoil Factor and Defense Factor all rely on an accurate approximation of the gun's Muzzle Velocity. Example: 100 grain bullet at 3000 ft/seconds > 100 x 3000 x It is also measured in a fixed distance over a specific time, such as feet per second, or even miles per hour. This is done with calculations that are based on the handgun type (pistol or revolver) and the cartridge dimensions. Divide the product by 226,000 ( a gravimetric Constant). His internal ballistics equations are the basis for many of the software and online cartridge loading calculators around today. Then hit the square-root key on your calculator. We then took our four formulas and converted them into computer routines written in our website's native programming language, and then ran these routines against the same selected calibers and barrel lengths comparing the results side-by-side with the BBTI test data. This can also be know as a bullet energy calculator. What we seized upon from Powley is a series of formulas he developed for approximating muzzle velocity based on barrel length using actual cartridge test data as the seed -exactly what we were looking for. Ballistic specifications for a particular cartridge of a given caliber are based on actual measurements from tests performed by both SAAMI and the ammo manufacturers. Because of this we could not get a direct match between industry standard tests of revolver cartridges using "vented" barrels and BBTI's tests of the same cartridges through solid barrels. I will warn you, this is not an inexpensive rifle, but it’s worth your attention. Use this online calculator and find the muzzle energy in foot pounds and joules. So if you are considering a gun for either hunting or self-defense, do a little ballistics algebra and see where that cartridge stands. So, when those cartridges for which the industry specification tests are performed using rifle or pistol barrels are instead used in a revolver, the calculated adjusted muzzle velocity must include an approximated compensation for the revolver's cylinder gap. Stopping power is the ability of a bullet to penetrate material or an object. That’s a full 200 feet per second as the weight drops by nearly 100 grains (7g). Unfortunately, this is not an option for the over 5,000 handgun variants that we currently have in our database. It is calculated from mass, velocity and weight of the bullet. The second way that we found the muzzle velocity was by graphing a video in logger pro. These tests are typically done using special ballistic test barrels, again based on SAAMI specifications. Most often this is done using a gram scale. Given those two values (200 grain bullet, 25 ft/sec/in) we developed a simple formula that we have been using ever since. F=ma, therefore a= Pπr 2 ∕m. Larger objects moving at a higher speed would have higher kinetic energy than a small slower object. The next step is to measure the bullet velocity as it’s leaving the gun. Fifty-year-old works by an otherwise unknown mathematician are hard to come by. If anyone is interested in a platform on which to write handgun reviews, or any other firearms related articles, please don't hesitate to contact us using our |Contact| form accessible from our main navigation menu. One ounce is equal to 437.5 grains. Last, check the answer with the table above. When it comes to determining what a cartridge's ballistics will be for an actual firearm, again the only truly accurate method would be to take real-world empirical measurements with the gun. ( Log Out / Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. This was a costly and time consuming endeavor; thousands of rounds fired, many custom test barrels progressively chopped and crowned inch-by-inch, the meticulous recording of each chronograph measurement. Example: 45 caliber 240 grain bullet 200 yard velocity of 985 fps. Stay in the know. His formula is just as valid today as it was then, and it shows that muzzle velocity isn’t everything. The following tables summarize the verification results across the eight selected calibers: For an even deeper dive into the details and numbers from these tests refer to this PDF document: Muzzle Velocity Formula Verification. Let’s say for this example we find the velocity to be 200 ft per second. But is speed the only answer to the equation of an ideal round, whether it is for hunting or personal protection? Muzzle velocity is stated in feet per second (fps or ft/s). You only need to know the acceleration of the bullet. If you aren't given the value of the acceleration but instead know the firing pressure inside the barrel, a muzzle velocity formula can be derived from the relationships between net force F (mass times acceleration), area A, mass m, pressure P (force divided by area) and acceleration a (force divided by mass). Formula: V = √ ( (e * 450240) / w) Where, V = Muzzle Velocity. The premise behind the formulas is the Expansion Ratio, which is the number of times the gas of a fired cartridge will expand by the time the bullet reaches the muzzle. * Multiply the bullet weight in grains by the velocity at impact. The precise definition, we can leave to the dictionary which simple states; The speed of a projectile, usually expressed in feet or meters per second, as it leaves the barrel of a gun. If the mass m and muzzle velocity v of a bullet are known, its kinetic energy and momentum can be determined from the relationships Ek = (1/2)mv2 and momentum p = mv.
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